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Friday, 1 August 2014

Conventional source of energy



  • coal, petroleum natural gas are the conventional sources for thermal power in India
  • Water is the conventional source for hydel power

Saturday, 18 May 2013

Digital Communication

Digital Communication

A digital communication systems offers many advantages to the user, that cannot be achieved with a analog system. Digital communication system may make use of analog links and concepts.

A digital system is a more general case of a binary system. In binary systems, only two signals values can exists. They are often called 0 and 1, but these names represent specific voltages.

The term data is commonly used in digital communication systems. Data is any form of information, that has been put into digital form, so that it can be handled by a digital system. The data itself is measured as bit.(bit is a contraction of the term 'binary digit')

The binary signals are easy to generate and process with digital circuits. These digital circuits are available in the IC form and can generate and process digital data at high speeds.

Wednesday, 1 May 2013

Principle of Radar

Principle of Radar

Radar works on the principle of 'radio echoes'. The transmitter in a radar, radiates the high power electrical pulses into space. When these pulses are incident on any distant target such as a mountain, ship or aircraft, they get scattered in all directions. The transmitter antenna receives a part of the scattered energy. This transmitter antenna also acts as receiving antenna for receiving pulse. The pulse travels with the speed of light 3*108  ms-1.In other words, these pulse cover a distance of 300 meters for every micro second. hence by measuring the time taken by the pulse to reach the target and back to the transmitter, the range or distance of the target can be easily determined. To locate the direction of the target, directional antennas are used.


Wednesday, 24 April 2013

Sky Wave or Ionospheric propagation

Sky Wave or Ionospheric propagation

The ionosphere is the upper portion of the atmosphere, which absorbs large quantities of radiant energy like ultra violet rays, cosmic rays etc., from the sun, becoming heated and ionised. This ionised region contains free electrons, positive and negative ions.

Radio waves in the short wave band, radiated from an antenna at large angles with ground, travel through the atmosphere and encounters the ionised region in the upper atmosphere, Under favourable circumstances, the radiowaves get bent downwards due to refraction from the different parts of the ionised region and again reach the earth at a fer distant point. Such a radio wave is called the sky wave and such a propagation of radio wave is known as sky wave propagation or ionospheric propagation. Long distance radio communication is thus possible through the sky wave propagation.

Monday, 22 April 2013

Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion is a process in which two or more lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus. the mass of the product is always less than the sum of masses of the individual lighter nuclei. The difference in mass is converted into energy. The fusion process can be carried out only at a extremely high temperature of the ode of 107 K because, only at these very high temperatures the nuclei are able to overcome their mutual repulsion. Therefore before fusion, the lighter nuclei must have their temperature raised by several million degrees. The nuclear fusion reactions are known as thermo-nuclear reactions.

Saturday, 6 April 2013

Colours of thin films

Colours of thin films

Everyone is familiar with the brilliant colours exhibited by a thin oil film spread on the surface of water and also by a soap bubble. These colours are due to interference between light waves reflected from the top and bottom surfaces of thin filims. When white light is incident on a thin film, the film appers coloured and the colour depends upon the thickness of the film and also the angle of incidence of the light.

Saturday, 16 March 2013

Uses of Polaroid

Uses of Polaroid

  1. Polaroids are used in the laboratory to produce and analyse plane polarised light.
  2. Polaroids are widely used as polarising sun glasses.
  3. They are used to eliminate the head light glare in motor cars.
  4. They are used to improve colour contrasts in old oil paintings.
  5. polaroid films are used to produce three-dimensonal moving pictures.
  6. They are used as glass windows in trains and aeroplanes to control the intensity of light. In aeroplane one polaroid is fixed outside the window while the other is fitted inside which can be rotated. The intensity of light can be adjusted by rotating the inner polaroid.
  7. Aerial pictures may be taken from slightly different angles and when viewed through polaroids give a better perception of depth.
  8. In calculators and watches, letters and numbers are formed by liquid crystal display(LCD) through polarisation of light.
  9. Polarisation is also used to study size and shape of molecules.